How to drive a forklift and focus on getting the job done safely and easily?
Electric forklifts and corresponding internal combustion forklifts are basically the same in structure, so the operation methods are basically the same. Because the driving speed and commutation of the battery forklift are realized by changing the current magnitude and current direction of the drive motor, it does not have a mechanical transmission and clutch device, directly controls the vehicle speed with the speed regulating pedal, and changes the driving direction of the forklift (forward or reverse) with the reversing switch. The electric forklift does not idle, and as soon as the drive motor rotates, the forklift starts; Its speed is controlled by a speed control pedal; Foot and hand brakes cooperate with deceleration and stopping.
Although the basic operation method of various forklifts is the same, due to the differences in models and structures, they also have their own characteristics. When operating, the amount and weight of the operation of each mechanism must be repeatedly operated to achieve proficiency, accuracy and ensure safety.
1. Preparations before driving
Before the operation, the driver should wear work clothes in strict accordance with the requirements of the regulations, and it is strictly forbidden to participate in the operation shirtless, barefoot and wearing high-heeled shoes and sandals; And do the following technical inspections for electric forklifts and electric tractors:
1. Check the level height and specific gravity of the battery electrolyte. The level of the battery electrolyte should be higher than the separator
10mm~15mm; The specific gravity should meet the requirements of the region and the season; The voltage of a single grid shall not be less than 1.75V, and the voltage of the whole vehicle shall not be lower than the minimum limit voltage (such as 0.4t electric 2. The minimum limit voltage of the forklift is 2.1V; The minimum limiting voltage of the 2t electric tractor is 35V), otherwise the electrolyte should be replenished and charged; The electrode joints should be cleaned and tightened;
3. Check the power lines. Each wire joint should be connected and fastened, the contact is good, the fuse should be intact, and the switch and handle should be in the stop position;
4. Close the emergency switch, open the electric lock, and check whether the instrument, light, horn and other work are normal;
5. Check the steering mechanism, which should be flexible and lightweight;
6. Check the braking device, which should be flexible and reliable;
7. Check whether the bearings and related running parts of each part are well lubricated and flexible;
8. Check whether the walking part and the hydraulic system of the forklift are working normally, especially the pipeline, joint, cylinder,
Whether there is oil leakage in hydraulic components such as distribution valves;
9. According to the size of the loading and unloading goods, select the fork, and install it on the fork frame, and adjust the distance; Select the retaining frame of the pressing device, etc., and adjust it appropriately according to the height of the goods;
10. Check that the forks, pressing mechanisms, traversing mechanisms, lifting chains, masts, etc. should work well and be reliable;
11. When the electric forklift or tractor tows the trailer, the appropriate number of trailers should be selected, and check whether the towing hook is firmly connected;
12. Find faults, eliminate them in time, and go out without faults.
2. Precautions during starting and driving
1. Before driving, the driver should first inspect and clean up the scene and passage, so that it is suitable for electric forklift operation and tractor driving;
2. When starting, the emergency switch should be closed first, the electric lock should be opened, and then the position of the direction switch should be triggered, the horn should be sounded, and then slowly started and gradually accelerated, and it is forbidden to start the speed pedal quickly, so as to prevent the starting current from being too large and burning out the motor;
3. When driving, it should be accelerated gradually, and it is not allowed to drive at low speed for a long time; will, give way to the car, should be empty car to give way to the heavy car;
4. It is strictly forbidden to pull the direction switch while driving, and only after the car is stopped, can the direction switch be reversed. Sudden braking should be avoided as much as possible, in case of emergency, the brake knife switch should be pulled down quickly, the brake pedal should be pressed, and the car should be stopped immediately;
5. When starting and turning, you should honk your horn, and when turning, going downhill, the road surface is uneven or passing through a narrow passage, you should slow down and pay attention to safety;
6. When driving on the road, to pass on the right side, forklift forks from the ground should be 100mm ~ 200mm left and right, mast in the backward position; When two vehicles are driving in the same direction, the distance between the front and rear should be more than 2m;
7. When a plurality of forklifts (tractors) are driving on the platform, the distance between the front and rear should be more than 5m, and parallel should be strictly prohibited when the same direction is on the narrow platform, and the distance from the edge of the platform is more than 0.3m;
8. When the electric forklift or tractor tows the trailer, it is forbidden to drive in a continuous curve, so as to avoid high-current discharge and affect safety; Regardless of full load, no load, uphill, downhill, etc., it is strictly forbidden to reverse driving; When turning, slow down,
To avoid scattering the goods, and at the same time pay attention to the inner wheel difference, in case the trailer scratches the inside or drives off the road;
9. The loading height of the trailer is not more than 1.5m from the bottom plate, and the width of both sides does not exceed 200mm on the edge of the trailer; The tractor shall not steer on the ramp of more than 10%, and it is strictly forbidden to drive on the ramp of more than 5%;
1. Under normal circumstances, the electric forklift traveling motor and the oil pump motor are forbidden to work at the same time to prolong the service life of the storage battery;
2. When the working voltage is lower than the minimum limit voltage of the car, it should stop working and charge it in time;
3. If there is any abnormal phenomenon found in the driving, it should be stopped immediately for inspection and troubleshooting in time; It is forbidden to carry people by fork and trailer; It is strictly forbidden to drive with faults.
3. Work after the suspension of driving
1. After the use of the machinery, the whole vehicle should be cleaned in time, and parked in a suitable place, pay attention to anti-freezing, sun, rain;
2. The electric lock should be turned off, the emergency switch should be pulled down, the reversing switch and the light switch should be placed in the "O" position, the fork should be put on the ground, and the piston rod of each cylinder should be reduced to the oil cylinder, and the hand brake should be pulled;
3. Clean and inspect the battery, replenish distilled water, check and adjust the specific gravity of the electrolyte; Check the battery voltage and charge it in time; When the battery voltage is less than the minimum limit voltage, it should be charged immediately;
4. Check whether there is leakage in the oil pipes, joints, cylinders, distribution valves, oil tanks, etc. of the hydraulic system;
5. Do a good job of handing over the shift, complete the class maintenance project, especially to do a good job in the maintenance of the safety device of the machine, and master its technical state.
Fourth, the way to improve the operation skills
To improve the skill of forklift operation, the driver needs to go through repeated practice and training. Here are some ways to improve your operational skills:
1. Study the operation manual: Read the operation manual of the forklift carefully to understand the structure of the forklift and the functions of each component. Master the operating principles and safety regulations of forklifts.
2. Participate in training courses: Participate in professional forklift training courses to learn forklift operation skills and safety knowledge. Training courses usually include theoretical learning and practical training.
3. Hands-on: Improve your skills through hands-on experience. Under the guidance of the forklift's starting, driving, turning, stopping and other operations, gradually familiar with and master the forklift control methods.
4. Repetitive practice: Perform repeated practice and master various operation movements. For example, accelerate gradually when starting, pay attention to the inner wheel difference when turning, use the brake pedal when parking, etc.
5. Pay attention to safety: When operating a forklift, always pay attention to safety. Follow traffic rules, be aware of your surroundings, and make sure your lanes are clear. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the stability of the goods and avoid the goods being scattered or tilted.
6. Communicate with experienced drivers: Communicate with experienced drivers and ask them for tips and precautions. Their experience can help you better understand and master the operation of forklifts.
7. Regular inspection and maintenance: Regularly inspect the various components of the forklift to ensure that they are working properly. Replace worn parts in time to keep the forklift in good condition.
Through the learning and practice of the above methods, drivers can gradually improve the operation skills of electric forklifts and ensure that work tasks are completed safely and efficiently. At the same time, you should always be cautious and focused, follow operating procedures, and ensure the safety of yourself and others
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